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Tionól 2018

Tionól 2018 will take place on Friday November 2 and Saturday November 3 at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4.


Abstracts are given below in programme order.

Deborah Hayden: Auraicept na n-éces and the Ars medicine

The medieval Irish grammatical compilation known as Auraicept na n-éces (‘The Scholars’
Primer’) is a remarkably complex example of the early Irish exegetical tradition. While parts
of the compilation have been dated on linguistic grounds to the Old Irish period, the work
only survives in manuscripts copied from the fourteenth century onwards, where it is
accompanied by a substantial quantity of later glossing and commentary. Past scholarship on
the Auraicept has variously characterised the text as a vernacular reflex of several Latin
commentaries on Donatus’ Ars maior written by Irish scholars working on the Continent
during the ninth century, or as a primer in the art of filidecht, a theoretical knowledge about
the content, metrics, and language of poetry.

However, much work remains to be done regarding the later transmission of the
Auraicept and the identification of the sources underlying its accreted commentary. This
paper will consider the significance of some passages in the compilation that reflect aspects
of Aristotelian natural philosophy and elementary medical learning, and find parallels in Irish
translations of texts associated with the Ars medicine, a collection of works that formed the
basis of medical teaching in the early universities. It will assess the implications of this
material both for the dating of some of the Auraicept’s commentary, as well as for our
understanding of the compilation’s use in scholarly circles during the later medieval period.

Beatrix Färber: An Irish Materia Medica: Tadhg Ó Cuinn’s Irish Herbal (1415)

At CELT the preparation of the unpublished edition and translation of an Irish Materia Medica by Micheál P.S. Ó Conchubhair is in progress. This substantial work (over 900 pages) will complement CELT’s other online Irish medical translations/compilations from Latin sources. The printed text comprises the edition based on Trinity College Library, MS 1343 (available on ISOS), a list of parallels from related Latin tracts, English translation and glossary. This Herbal, the professional tool of an Irish doctor, is brim-full with botanical descriptions, medical information and advice on preparing remedies. The text is extant in various manuscripts and comprises 292 entries (plants, animal products and mineral products) in alphabetic order. It is based on authorities such as Macer Floridus’, De viribus herbarum, Joannes Platerarius’, Circa Instans. and Isaac Israeli’s, Liber dietarum particularium, but for some entries no Latin source has yet been found.

Ó Conchubhair was a private scholar from Dublin, whose fascination with pre-modern medicine brought him to the discipline. After his death in 1994 his family donated the edition to the School of Celtic Studies, DIAS, where it remained until Professor Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha took up the initiative to have the text donated to CELT. The content and importance of this work for the extensive field of Irish medical manuscripts of which ISOS presents so many on its website will be highlighted.

Guto Rhys: Grave Elegies — Four centuries of inscribed, metrical Welsh epitaphs

Since the second half of the sixteenth century elegiac englynion (strict-metre stanzas) have been inscribed on Welsh gravestones. This practice continues energetically to the present day, and there is a published, or available, corpus of such poems numbering well over eleven thousand examples. Many, many thousands remain to be collected and published and they are located in all the broad areas where Welsh was spoken until about the mid nineteenth century. Only a few regions have been surveyed in detail and vast tracts of land, including most industrial areas have yet to be investigated academically. A significant but unknown number are in graveyards such as those of the Welsh casualties of the First and Second World Wars, and especially in the graveyards associated with the hundreds of Welsh chapels of the United States and England. There also stray examples further afield in South Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Bilbao etc.

While many of the earliest inscriptions have been lost there is still an attested and unbroken tradition stretching back into the closing era of the professional Welsh poets. The tradition has evolved over the centuries charting Welsh attitudes towards death, life, loss, individuality, the afterlife, religion and society in general. While a part of the corpus is unremarkable in its poetic vision and expression, a good part is striking, representing the work of accomplished local and national poets. The fact that these elegies are composed on the exiguous strict metres is testimony to the dedication and skills of thousands of poets. The englynion record the trials and tribulations of great poets, war dead, lost infants, men drowned at sea, sea captains, murdered individuals, bodies found on the shore, Patagonians, emigrants in the United States, a Welsh-speaking African of the nineteenth century, industrial accidents, a prime minister and much more.

This corpus represents important aspect of post-medieval Welsh history and a significant aspect of the development of modern Welsh poetry and literary thinking. It has received next to no critical attention and is crying out for a detailed study. Only a part has been recorded and published and therefore preserved for posterity in print. It is probably the largest corpus of Welsh literature which is not recorded in accessible means, and we are in immediate danger of losing much of it along with the local knowledge required to illuminate many core aspects such as the names of the poets or currently obscure references in the works.

This presentation will provide an introductory overview to the origins and development of this this phenomenon. There will then be discussions of the thematic, theological and philosophical development of the tradition including comments on the historical, social, religious, poetic and linguistic value of this corpus. The presentation is copiously illustrated with photographs of the graves themselves from Wales, Belgium, Patagonia and the United States. The intention is that this will generate a project whereby the collation and digitation of the whole corpus can be developed, drawing on the knowledge of local communities in a period when chapels are closing at an alarming rate, and erosion and social changes are steadily depriving us of the material itself.

Anthony Harvey: Haunting Vocabulary: Towards a Taxonomy of Ghost Words in Celtic Lexicography

Most Humanities scholars probably have an intuitive sense of what is meant by a “ghost word” — it is a word that, in one way or another, exists as the result of someone’s unrecognized mistake. However, upon closer examination it becomes clear that the term is liable to be employed so broadly that important shades of meaning can be lost. For one thing, ghost words are often regarded simply as nuisances that should be deleted whenever they are detected. But in practice they often prove to be too useful simply to discard: we shall look at examples that have made their way into active usage among the Celts. In other cases the etymology may indeed be unnatural, but turns out to be the result of more than a hint of deliberate word-crafting right from the start. These phenomena have largely come to light in the course of research on Celtic texts by lexicographers working across the range of languages with which the Tionól is concerned. In describing how their dictionaries have attempted to tackle the issue, this paper will propose a taxonomy that distinguishes true ghost words and dead words, on the one hand, from active items that may be described as poltergeist words and even Frankenstein words on the other; examples are drawn (with permission) from the work of various current and recent projects engaged in researching the vocabularies of the different tongues.

Marged Haycock: 75 Years Ago: Ifor Williams’s DIAS Lectures on Early Welsh Poetry

In February 1943, Professor Erwin Schrödinger, Director of the DIAS School of Theoretical Physics delivered a series of three public lectures, ‘What is Life?’, which were to inspire momentous advances in science. The following month, Ifor Williams, quarryman’s son and professor of Welsh at Bangor, gave the three statutory public lectures of the DIAS School of Celtic Studies, published as Lectures on Early Welsh Poetry in 1944. While Williams’s lectures may not have the momentous impact of Schrödinger’s, they proved influential as an accessible account — in English, rather than his usual Welsh — of his latest advances in the field. The paper will look at their reception as well as the circumstances of Williams’s wartime visit to Ireland which he regarded as one of the most memorable events of his career.

David Stifter, Angelina Lavelle: Alliterate by Number

Detailed studies of the use of alliteration in the Poems of Blathmac (Lavelle 2018, Stifter forthc.) reveal that in addition to previously recognised types of alliteration, i.e. ‘classical’ alliteration (Murphy 1961: 36–39), linking alliteration, complex alliteration (Sproule 1987: 185–195), paired alliteration (Hollo 1990), and mirrored alliteration (De Vries 2015), the poet also made use of hitherto undescribed types, namely various forms of compound alliteration. In order to prove the statis­tical significance of the various types of alliteration, a universal formula to predict the random probability of alliteration (= p(all)) in a text has been developed. The fundamental formula, which can be applied to any language that makes use of alliteration, is:

p(all) = f(α) × 1/nA × X × (w-(g-1))

where the following definitions obtain:

  • A = group of all sounds that can partake in alliteration in a language
  • α = any specific member of the group A
  • nA = number of elements in A
  • f(α) = relative frequence of α within the language; f(α) is set to 1 if no specific sound is meant
  • X = a placeholder that allows to add recurrently further factors, depending on how long the inves­ti­gated alliterative structure is; for the simple alliteration of two words, X is set to 1
  • w = average number of words in units of utterances that are eligible for an investigation (for instance, verse lines containing at least the prerequisite number of stressed words); equals g in continuous, unstructured texts, i.e. prose
  • g = number of elements of the investigated alliterative group; equals 2 when X is set to 1, but in­creases by 1 for each extra X that is specified

In the paper, it will be explained how this formula, and adaptations thereof, allows to quantify alli­teration and to assess the significance level of the relative frequency of alliteration in a given text, thus rectifying imprecisions in Sproule (1987: 194). This paper will also demonstrate the useful applicability of this formula outside poetry, and outside Old Irish.

This research is part of ChronHib (ERC H2020 #647351)


De Vries 2015
Ranke de Vries, ‘Instances of mirrored alliteration in the earliest of Irish poetry’, Australian Celtic Journal 13 (2015), 33–95.
Hollo 1990
Kaarina Hollo, ‘The Alliterative Structure of Mael Ísu Ua Brolcháin’s A aingil, beir’, Ériu 41 (1990), 77–80.
Lavelle 2018
Angelina Lavelle, Alliteration in the Poems of Blathmac. MA-thesis, Maynooth University 2018.
Murphy 1961
Gerard Murohy, Early Irish Metrics, Dublin: Royal Irish Academy 1961.
Sproule 1987
David Sproule, ‘Complex alliteration, full and unstressed rhyme, and the origin of deibide’, Ériu 38 (1987), 183–198.
Stifter forthc.
David Stifter, ‘An Early Irish poetic formula’, to appear in a Festschrift 2018.

Elliott Lash: The Etymology of the Old Irish interrogative particle in and some notes on syntactic change in Old Irish

Pedersen (1909: 391) suggested that the Old Irish interrogative particle in originated as a compound consisting of the cognate of Latin an and the negative particle *ne, i.e. *an-ne. However, this derivation cannot account for some aspects of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of this particle. I show that a satisfactory analysis of all of these factors requires both theoretically and comparatively grounded hypotheses about pre-Old Irish as well as close attention to the variation found in the 8th and 9th century Old Irish glosses themselves. I will argue that particle originated in the pre-Old Irish clitic group *an-de which underwent a series of syntactic reanalyses involving a change from a biclausal to a monoclausal structure. I end the paper with a note on a possibly related issue: an explanation for the origin of the Old Irish preposition/conjunction inge ‘except’.

Patrick Sims-Williams: ‘Just Saying’: Old Irish ol & olsé, Middle Welsh heb & hebyr

Whether Old Irish ol and Old Welsh hepp ‘says’ were adverbs, prepositions, or verbs, was inconclusively debated between 1909 and 1918 by Strachan, Pedersen, Lloyd-Jones, Vendryes, and Thurneysen, and in 1927 Dottin re-examined the issues. There is still no consensus, despite contributions on various aspects between 1960 and 2017 from Quin, Kortlandt, Rasmussen, Breatnach, Schumacher, and García Castillero. I will review the debate and hope to suggest some likely possibilities.

Richard Sharpe: Clóliosta. Printing in the Irish Language 1571–1871.
Mícheál Hoyne: Guides to reading Irish in printed books 1571–1871

The Clóliosta provides a catalogue of printing in Irish from the beginning until 1871. The scope and method of the work will be introduced, and then attention drawn to areas of interest where an overview of what was printed in Irish brings a significant new perspective. The span in time imposes a good deal of complexity on the work. Printing technology, economic environment, and cultural context changed enormously over the three centuries covered, and it is essential that such a list deal properly with the interactions between print and the manuscript tradition. While much of what was printed is independent of that tradition, there is also extensive interaction. Printed books were copied by scribes, printed editions of texts sometimes depend on or exist in parallel to what is also transmitted to us in manuscript. There is evidence that print was used to foster literacy in Irish, but the educational context raises many sociolinguistic issues. The use of a national typeface was normal in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but became controversial in the eighteenth century and later. The most frequently reprinted works used phonetic spelling in roman type, providing insights into dialect pronunciation, but also reflecting an approach to literacy that linked Latin, English, and Irish. The total number of editions in Irish, however, is very substantially smaller than in Scottish Gaelic and dramatically different from printing in Welsh. Without an appraisal of printing in Irish the separation of print from manuscript and the comparisons with other languages rest on slanted evidence. No such catalogue has been available since Dix and Ua Casaide’s List of Books, Pamphlets, &c., which was published in 1905. It runs to 156 entries down to 1820, occupying 24 pages. The Clóliosta, which seeks to provide narrative above and beyond a simple list, runs to more than 600 pages and some 800 editions.

Gregory Toner, Xiwu Han: Machine Learning Methods for Dating Irish Narrative

This paper presents the results of a three-year project examining machine-learning techniques for the dating of medieval Irish texts. We have previously described methods for building a computer model of language change in the Irish annals which can date individual entries to within +/- 25 years with a 75% success rate, and we have shown how this can be extended to produce relative dates for narrative texts. This paper will report on more recent experiments to determine absolute dates for non-annalistic texts, including the methods that we have developed to cope with genre change and bias within the data. We will report on the dates provided by the model and tested against a corpus of texts with generally agreed (although often provisional) dates. As texts may have undergone revisions subsequent to their composition, we will demonstrate how the method may attempt to identify multiple strata.

Marie-Luise Theuerkauf, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language: workshop

This demonstration will discuss how to get the best out of eDIL, drawing particular attention to the various features under ‘Advanced Search’. It will also discuss the work currently being undertaken on the Dictionary and how this will impact upon the site in the future.

Pamela O’Neill, Deborah J Street, William H Wilson: Statistical analysis of lexicon and the composition of Críth Gablach

The early Irish status text Críth Gablach is a compilation incorporating fragments of various texts of various ages. One section of the text can potentially be dated by its reference to Cáin Adomnáin, which was promulgated in 697. Because of the text’s importance to our understanding of early Irish social organisation, and its unusual inclusion of a firmly datable external reference, it would be highly desirable to understand more clearly which parts of it are likely to have derived from common, and which from different, sources. Neil McLeod has suggested some divisions of the text into different sources according to logical division of the legal subject matter treated. It would be helpful if these divisions could be confirmed, and possibly even further refined, by a separate methodology. This paper sets out to test one potential method: statistical analysis of lexical features. It draws upon methods such as those developed in the study of The Federalist Papers where it was demonstrated that relative frequency of function words in a text can be a strong indicator of authorship. The paper experiments with visual depictions of aspects of the lexicon of Críth Gablach, such as word clouds and lexical dispersion plots, based on McLeod’s division of the text and other divisions that are suggested by interim results. In so doing, the paper aims to identify commonalities and variations from section to section that may suggest the possibility of common or different authorship or source material. Finally, the paper evaluates the potential of statistical analysis of lexicon in contributing to assessment of the composition of Críth Gablach.

Peter McQuillan: Early Modern Civility in Gaelic Ireland and Conceptual History

What is early modern European civility? English, French and Italian authors variously characterize it as the art of self-presentation, of making oneself “comely” and “seemly” to others; as a lifestyle that appears “honest”, “virtuous” and “commendable”. Some stress its external and aestheticizing aspect, others emphasize its more internal, moral and ethical dimensions. Both strands co-exist and interact in a mutually creative tension. Civility is an inter-subjective phenomenon, where one’s self-image depends on the appreciation of others. It is about the values of associational life, the personal and collective enrichment afforded by sociability. It also draws on earlier understandings of civilitas as an expression of the socio-political order.

Unlike other European languages, Irish in the early modern period (in the periodization used by historians) does not have a word (civility, civilité or civiltà) through which its speakers can comprehensively thematize this concept. So the question “what is civility” often asked in seventeenth-century France, for instance, is not so easily posed from Irish-language sources. There is, of course, no a priori reason why any two languages should possess the same concept, even one as transnational as civility in the seventeenth century. My contention, however, is that ideas commensurate with such a concept emerge from a close reading of Irish-language sources in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. I have spoken at this conference over the past number of years on the historical development and cultural connotations of various words in Irish, especially suairceas “pleasantness, agreeableness”, díograis “fervour, affection” and uaigneas “loneliness, solitude” as Irish-speaking society responds to the pressures exerted by colonialism. From study of the semantic cruxes surrounding these lexical items, certain conceptual configurations emerge. I will argue that these configurations are ultimately consonant with early-modern European understandings of “civility”.

Since the 1970’s, there has been a growing interest in conceptual history and various projects have been organized on national lines, the most notable being for Germany, France and the Netherlands. In spite of this, however, there has also been considerable focus on concepts as “transnational”, as operating across national boundaries. Civility is a prime example of such a concept and I will consider some of the European evidence here in relation to the Irish material discussed above. In the process, I will make some concluding observations on the particular challenges (and rewards) posed by Irish-language sources for the period 1600–1800 for the writing of conceptual history.

Merryn Davies-Deacon: “Official” Cornish orthography in the post-SWF era

As a revived language, Cornish has seen the development of multiple orthographies in order to combat accusations of a perceived lack of authenticity or academic rigour (e.g. Ellis, 1974; Saunders, 1976). After more than twenty years of debate over Cornish orthographies (e.g. Williams, 1995; Dunbar & George, 1997), recognition by the UK government under the terms of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2003 (Deacon, 2007) led to the creation of what was initially intended as a “single written form” for use in public inscriptions and other official contexts. However, the inevitable impossibility of finding a compromise that pleased opposing groups of speakers with greatly differing motivations and ideologies meant that the eventual “Standard Written Form” (SWF) in fact comprises two variants, known as Middle Cornish forms and Late Cornish forms, based on the corresponding stages of the traditional language (Bock & Bruch, 2008). While it was initially stated that the two would be of equal status (ibid.), this equilibrium has been hard to maintain in the ten years since the SWF was implemented: as the majority of Cornish speakers prefer Middle Cornish forms (Burley, 2008), the Late Cornish forms are less visible and are commonly perceived as “variants” of subordinate status. Examining such perceptions, as well as official materials and public inscriptions, this paper examines the position of the two “main forms” of the SWF in contemporary revived Cornish and offers some reflections on the effects of the (failed?) implementation of two official forms of equal status.


Bock, A. and Bruch, B. (2008). An outline of the standard written form of Cornish. Truro: Cornish Language Partnership.

Burley, S. (2008). A report on the Cornish Language Survey conducted by the Cornish Language Partnership. Unpublished report.

Deacon, B. (2007). Deconstructing Kernowek Kemyn: A critical review of Agan Yeth 4. In Everson, M. (ed.). Form and content in revived Cornish. Westport: Evertype, pp. 69–84.

Dunbar, P. and George, K. J. (1997). Kernewek Kemmyn: Cornish for the twenty-first century. Penzance: Cornish Language Board.

Ellis, P. B. (1974). The Cornish language and its literature. London: Routledge.

Saunders, T. (1976). Why I write in Cornish. Planet 30, 29–33.

Williams, N. J. A. (1995). Cornish today: An examination of the revived language. Sutton Coldfield: Kernewek dre Lyther.

Caoimhín Breatnach: Editions of Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne and of the tale referred to as Úath Beinne Étair

This paper will begin with a discussion of Standish Hayes O’Grady’s edition of Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne. It will be pointed out that, pace Nessa Ní Shéaghdha (Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne, ITS Vol. 48, xv, n.1), one of the manuscripts used by O’Grady is that now known as University College Cork MS. 96. Sections of O’Grady’s edition based on this manuscript and the transmission of these sections in other manuscript sources will be discussed. The remainder of the paper will focus on editions by Kuno Meyer and Nessa Ní Shéaghdha of the tale referred to as Úath Beinne Étair. These editions are based on versions in British Library Harley 5280 and Royal Irish Academy 23 N 10 respectively. Proposed emendations to the texts and translations in these editions will be discussed.

Wolfgang Meid: Táin Bó Cúailnge: The final verbal exchange between Medb and Fergus

Textual analysis and discussion of meaning and significance mainly of line 4122 (Medb) “correcad lochta & fulachta sund indiu”; establishment of the correct reading.

María del Henar Velasco López: Courting water: Greek and Irish heroines

The “Splash of Water” motif has attracted attention since the nineteenth century. The similarity between the passage of Tóruigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne, The Pursuit of Diarmaid and Gráinne, and the Tristan incident has been the principal focus. The purpose of this paper is to suggest some parallels in Greek mythology and to indicate their ritual implications. The comparison should enable us to look afresh at the Irish episode, noting the differences between oral and literary versions, and lead us to a deeper understanding of the motif and its function in the narrative.

Roisin McLaughlin: Marginal Entries in TCD MS H.2.15b

TCD MS H.2.15b (1317) is a composite manuscript which forms part of the collection of Irish manuscripts made by Edward Lhuyd during his tour of Ireland in 1699-1700. It contains several glossaries as well as legal, grammatical, hagiographical and topographical material and has been described as ‘a microcosm of medieval Irish learning all in one manuscript’. The purpose of this paper is to examine some palaeographical features and unpublished marginal entries. The latter include a poem in the hand of Baothghalach Mac Aodhagáin on Mug Éme, said to be the first lapdog in Ireland, and a marginal glossary in the hand of An Dubhaltach Mór Mac Fhirbhisigh.

Séamas De Barra: Rian na scríobhaithe agus na n-údar Gaeilge ar an gCatechismus/Teagasc Criostuí ag an Ath. Teaboid Gállduf

Léiriú atá sa pháipéar seo ar an tslí a ndeachaigh Gaeilge na leabhar, idir lámhscríofa agus chlóscríofa, i bhfeidhm ar scríobh na Gaeilge ag an Ath. Teaboid Gállduf, údar Catechismus/Teagasc Criostuí (An Bhruiséil 1639).

Ba iad na scríobhaithe agus na húdair a chuaigh i gcion ar an Ath. Gállduf: scríobhaithe Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta agus Leabhar Mór Dúna Daighre, lámhscríbhinní a luaitear le Clann Aodhagáin; Séon Carsuel, údar Foirm na nUrrnuidheadh (Dùn Èideann 1567); Seaán Ó Cearnaigh, údar Aibidil Gaoidheilge & Caiticiosma (Baile Átha Cliath 1571); Flaithrí Ó Maoil Chonaire, údar Teccosc Críosduidhe (Salamanca 1593) — aistriúchán é seo ar theagasc Críostaí Spáinnise le Gaspar Astete, Íosánach (1537–1601) Doctrina Christiana y documentos de crianza (Salamanca [?]: 1576–1586), ach mar gheall ar an gceadúnas clóbhuailte a bheith caite, ba faoi ainm Jerónimo de Ripalda, Íosánach eile, a foilsíodh é, faoin teideal Catecismo de la Doctrina Cristiana y exposición breve de la doctrina cristiana (Burgos 1591); Bonabhentura Ó H‑Eódhasa, An Teagasg Críosdaidhe (Antuairp 1611); Flaithrí Ó Maoil Chonaire, Desiderius (Lobháin 1616); Aodh Mac Aingil, Scáthán Shacramuinte na hAithridhe (Lobháin 1618); Bonabhentura Ó H‑Eódhasa/Aodh Mac Aingil, Rudimenta Grammaticæ Hibernicæ (Lobháin idir 1618 agus 1623).

Tá cúpla toradh gan choinne ar an suaitheadh sin. An chéad cheann: réiteach ar an easaontas idir an tOllamh Ailbhe Ó Corráin agus an Dr Caoimhín Breatnach i dtaobh cérbh é údar chuid na Laidine de Rudimenta Grammaticæ Hibernicæ. Tá a chuma go láidir air gurbh é Bonabhentura Ó H-Eódhasa a sholáthair an t-ábhar i gcomhair Rudimenta Grammaticæ Hibernicæ ceart go leor, ach gurbh é Aodh Mac Aingil a chuir an téacs Laidine ar fáil, agus a chuir bailchríoch air sin.

Is é an dara toradh ar an suaitheadh: an t-aighneas polaitíochta idir Flaithrí Ó Maoil Chonaire agus Aodh Mac Aingil a dhéanamh níos soiléire. Scótaí ba ea Mac Aingil go bunúsach [i.e. é a bheith ar lucht leanúna an diagaire ó Albain, John Duns Scotus (1266–1308)]. Is amhlaidh a bhí Mac Aingil an-ghéilliúil d’Aodh Mór Ó Néill, agus tá fianaise láidir ann gur ar mhaithe leis féin, agus nach le náisiún na hÉireann a bhí Ó Néill, gur Mé-Féiní ba ea go bunúsach é. Smaointeoireacht Mhic Aingil, i ndeireadh a shaoil, ar chúrsaí na hEaglaise agus an Stáit, tá an-ghaol aici le smaointeoireacht William of Ockham (1285–1347), diagaire Proinsiasach ó Shasana, a d’áitigh gur cheart don Eaglais a bheith faoin Stát. Déanann an méid sin smaointeoireacht Ghállduif féin ar na cúrsaí sin níos soiléire. Ba de lucht leanúna Uí Dhomhnaill é Gállduf, dála Fhlaithrí Uí Mhaoil Chonaire.